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林語堂:讀書的藝術

[2015-12-22] 點擊:

林語堂

讀書或書籍的享受素來被視為有修養的生活上的一種雅事,而在一些不大有機會享受這種權利的人們看來,這是一種值得尊重和妒忌的事。當我們把一個不讀書者和一個讀書者的生活上的差異比較一下,這一點便很容易明白。那個沒有養成讀書習慣的人,以時間和空間而言,是受著他眼前的世界所禁錮的。他的生活是機械化的,刻板的;他只跟幾個朋友和相識者接觸談話,他只看見他周遭所發生的事情。他在這個監獄里是逃不出去的。可是當他拿起一本書的時候,他立刻走進一個不同的世界;如果那是一本好書,他便立刻接觸到世界上一個最健談的人。這個談話者引導他前進,帶他到一個不同的國度或不同的時代,或者對他發泄一些私人的悔恨,或者跟他討論一些他從來不知道的學問或生活問題。一個古代的作家使讀者隨一個久遠的死者交通;當他讀下去的時候,他開始想象那個古代的作家相貌如何,是哪一類的人。孟子和中國最偉大的歷史家司馬遷都表現過同樣的觀念。一個人在十二小時之中,能夠在一個不同的世界里生活二小時,完全忘懷眼前的現實環境:這當然是那些禁錮在他們的身體監獄里的人所妒羨的權利。這么一種環境的改變,由心理上的影響說來,是和旅行一樣的。

BUDANRUCI。DUZHEWANGWANGBEISHUJIDAIJINYIGESIXIANGHEFANSHENGDEJINGJIELIQU。ZONGSHINEISHIYIBENGUANYUXIANSHISHIQINGDESHU,QINYANKANJIANNEIXIESHIQINGHUOQINLIQIJING,HEZAISHUZHONGDUDAONEIXIESHIQING,QIJIANYEYOUBUTONGDEDIFANG,YINWEIZAISHUBENLISUOXUSHUDESHIQINGWANGWANGBIANCHENGYIPIANJINGXIANG,ERDUZHEYEBIANCHENGYIGELENGYANPANGGUANDEREN。SUOYI,ZUIHAODEDUWUSHINEIZHONGNENGGOUDAIWOMENDAOZHEZHONGCHENSIDEXINJINGLIQUDEDUWU,ERBUSHINEIZHONGJINZAIBAOGAOSHIQINGDESHIMODEDUWU。WORENWEIRENMENHUAFEIDALIANGDESHIJIANQUYUEDUBAOZHI,BINGBUSHIDUSHU,YINWEIYIBANYUEBAOZHEDADIZHIZHUYIDAOSHIJIANFASHENGHUOJINGGUODEQINGXINGDEBAOGAO,WANQUANMEIYOUCHENSIMOXIANGDEJIAZHI。

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SUOYI,YIHUANGSHANGUSHIDESHUOHUA,NEIZHONGYIXIUYANGGERENWAIBIAODEYOUYAHETANTUDEFENGWEIWEIMUDEDEDUSHU,CAISHIWEIYIZHIDEJIAXUDEDUSHUFA。ZHEZHONGWAIBIAODEYOUYAXIANRANBUSHIZHISHENTISHANGZHIMEI。HUANGSHISUOSHUODE“MIANMUKEZENG”,BUSHIZHISHENTISHANGDECHOULOU。CHOULOUDELIANKONGYOUSHIYEHUIYOUDONGRENZHIMEI,ERMEILIDELIANKONGYOUSHIYEHUILINGRENKANLAITAOYAN。WOYOUYIGEZHONGGUOPENGYOU,TOULUDEXINGZHUANGXIANGYIKEZHADAN,KESHIKANDAOTAQUESHIRENHUANXI。JUWOZAITUHUASHANGSUOKANJIANDEXIYANGZUOJIA,LIANKONGZUIPIAOLIANGDEDANGTUIJISITOUDUN。TADEZIXU,YANJING,YOUCUYOUHOUDEMEIMAO,HELIANGMEIJIANDEZHOUWEN,HEZUERCHENGYIGEEMOSIDERONGMAO。WOMENZHIJUEDENEIGETOUEZHONGYOUXUXUDUODUODESINIANZAIZHUANDONGZHU,SUISHIHUIYOUNEIDUIGUGUAIERRUILIDEYANJINGLIBENGFACHULAI。NEIJIUSHIHUANGSHISUOWEIMEILIDELIANKONG,YIGEBUSHIZHIFENZHUANGBANQILAIDELIANKONG,ERSHICHUNRANYOUSIXIANGDELILIANGCHUANGZAOQILAIDELIANKONG。JIANGDAOTANTUDEFENGWEI,NEIWANQUANYAOKANYIGERENDUSHUDEFANGFARUHE。YIGERENDETANTUYOUMEIYOU“WEI”,WANQUANYAOKANTADEDUSHUFANGFA。RUGUODUZHEHUODESHUZHONGDE“WEI”,TABIANHUIZAITANTUZHONGBAZHEZHONGFENGWEIBIAOXIANCHULAI;RUGUOTADETANTUZHONGYOUFENGWEI,TAZAIXIEZUOZHONGYEMIANBULEHUIBIAOXIANCHUFENGWEILAI。

SUOYI,WORENWEIFENGWEIHUOSHIHAOSHIYUEDUYIQIESHUJIDEGUANJIAN。ZHEZHONGSHIHAOGENDUISHIWUDESHIHAOYIYANG,BIRANSHIYOUXUANZEXINGDE,SHUYUGERENDE。CHIYIGERENSUOXIHUANCHIDEDONGXIZHONGJIUSHIZUIHEWEISHENGDECHIFA,YINWEITAZHIDAOCHIZHEXIEDONGXIZAIXIAOHUAFANGMIANYIDINGHENSHUNLI。DUSHUGENCHIDONGXIYIYANG,“ZAIYIRENCHILAISHIBUPIN,ZAITARENCHILAISHIDUZHI。”JIAOSHIBUNENGYIQISUOHAOQIANGPOXUESHENGQUDU,FUMUYEBUNENGXIWANGZINVDESHIHAOHETAMENYIYANG。RUGUODUZHEDUITASUODUDEDONGXIGANBUDAOQUWEI,NEIMESUOYOUDESHIJIANQUANDOULANGFEILE。YUANZHONGLANGYUE:“SUOBUHAOZHISHU,KERANGTARENDUZHI。”

SUOYI,SHIJIANMEIYOUSHENMEYIGERENBIDUZHISHU。YINWEIWOMENZHINENGSHANGDEQUWEIXIANGYIKESHUNEIYANGDISHENGCHANGZHU,HUOXIANGHESHUINEIYANGDILIUZHU。ZHIYAOYOUSHIDANGDESHUYE,SHUBIANHUISHENGCHANGQILAI,ZHIYAOQUANZHONGYOUXINXIANDEQUANSHUIYONGCHULAI,SHUIBIANHUILIUZHU。DANGSHUILIUPENGDAOYIGEHUAGANGYANSHISHI,TABIANYOUYANSHIDEPANGBIANRAOGUOQU;DANGSHUILIUYONGDAOYIPIANDIWADEXIGUSHI,TABIANZAINEIBIANQUQUZHEZHEDILIUZHUYIHUIER;DANGSHUILIUYONGDAOYIGESHENSHANDECHITANGSHI,TABIANTIANRANTINGZHUZAINEIBIAN;DANGSHUILIUCHONGXIAJILIUSHI,TABIANGANKUAIXIANGQIANYONGQU。ZHEMEYILAI,SUIZETAMEIYOUFEISHENMEQILI,YEMEIYOUYIDINGDEMUBIAO,KESHITAZHONGJIUYOUYITIANHUIDAODADAHAI。SHISHANGWURENRENBIDUDESHU,ZHIYOUZAIMOUSHIMOUDI,MOUZHONGHUANJING,HESHENGMINGZHONGDEMOUGESHIQIBIDUDESHU。WORENWEIDUSHUHEHUNYINYIYANG,SHIMINGYUNZHUDINGDEHUOYINYANGZHUDINGDE。DANGYIGERENDESIXIANGHEJINGYANHUANMEIYOUDADAOYUEDUYIBENJIEZUODECHENGDUSHI,NEIBENJIEZUOZHIHUILIUXIABUHAODEZIWEI。KONGZIYUE:“WUSHIYIXUE《YI》。”BIANSHISHUO,SISHIWUSUISHIHOUSHANGBUKEDU《YIJING》。KONGZIZAI《LUNYU》ZHONGDEXUNYANDECHONGDANWENHEDEWEIDAO,YIJITADECHENGSHUDEZHIHUI,FEIDAODUZHEZIJICHENGSHUDESHIHOUSHIBUNENGXINSHANGDE。

QIETONGYIBENSHU,TONGYIDUZHE,YISHIKEDUCHUYISHIZHIWEIDAOLAI。QIJINGKUANGSHIRUKANYIMINGRENXIANGPIAN,HUODUMINGRENWENZHANG,WEIJIANMIANSHI,SHIYIZHONGWEIDAO,JIANLEMIANJIAOTANZHIHOU,ZAIKANQIXIANGPIAN,HUODUQIWENZHANG,ZIYOULINGWAIYICENGSHENQIEDELIHUI。HUOSHIYUQIRENJUEJIAOYIHOU,KANQIZHAOPIAN,DUQIWENZHANG,YILINGYOUYIFANWEIDAO。SISHIXUE《YI》SHIYIZHONGWEIDAO,DAOWUSHISUIKANGUOGENGDUODERENSHIBIANGUDESHIHOUZAIQUXUE《YI》,YOUSHIYIZHONGWEIDAO。SUOYI,YIQIEHAOSHUZHONGDUQILAIDOUKEYIHUODEYICHUHEXINLEQU。WOZAIDAXUEDESHIDAIBEIXUEXIAOQIANGPOQUDU《XIXINGJI》(“Westward Ho!”)HE《HENGLIAISHIMENG》(“Henry Esmond”),KESHIWOZAISHIYUSUISHIHOUSUINENGXINSHANG《XIXINGJI》DEHAOCHU,《HENGLIAISHIMENG》DEZHENZIWEIQUEWANQUANTIHUIBUDAO,HOULAIJIANJIANHUIXIANGQILAI,CAIYIXINGAISHUZHONGDEFENGWEIYIDINGBIWODANGSHISUONENGXINSHANGDEHUANYAOFENGFUDEDUO。

由是可知讀書有二方面,一是作者,一是讀者。對于所得的實益,讀者由他自己的見識和經驗所貢獻的份量,是和作者自己一樣多的。宋儒程伊川先生談到孔子的《論語》時說:“讀《論語》,有讀了全然無事者;有讀了后,其中得一兩句喜者;有讀了后,知好之者;有讀了后,直有不知手之舞之足之蹈之者。”

我認為一個人發現他最愛好的作家,乃是他的知識發展上最重要的事情。世間確有一些人的心靈是類似的,一個人必須在古今的作家中,尋找一個心靈和他相似的作家。他只有這樣才能夠獲得讀書的真益處。一個人必須獨立自主去尋出他的老師來,沒有人知道誰是你最愛好的作家,也許甚至你自己也不知道。這跟一見傾心一樣。人家不能叫讀者去愛這個作家或那個作家,可是當讀者找到了他所愛好的作家時,他自己就本能地知道了。關于這種發現作家的事情,我們可以提出一些著名的例證。有許多學者似乎生活于不同的時代里,相距多年,然而他們思想的方法和他們的情感卻那么相似,使人在一本書里讀到他們的文字時,好象看見自己的肖像一樣。以中國人的語法說來,我們說這些相似的心靈是同一條靈魂的化身,例如有人說蘇東坡是莊子或陶淵明轉世的,袁中郎是蘇東坡轉世的。蘇東坡說,當他第一次讀莊子的文章時,他覺得他自從幼年時代起似乎就一直在想著同樣的事情,抱著同樣的觀念。當袁中郎有一晚在一本小詩集里,發見一個名叫徐文長的同代無名作家時,他由床上跳起,向他的朋友呼叫起來,他的朋友開始拿那本詩集來讀,也叫起來,于是兩人叫復讀,讀復叫,弄得他們的仆人疑惑不解。伊里奧特(George Eliot)說她第一次讀到盧騷的作品時,好象受了電流的震擊一樣。尼采(Nietzsche)對于叔本華(Schopenhauer)也有同樣的感覺,可是叔本華是一個乖張易怒的老師,而尼采是一個脾氣暴躁的弟子,所以這個弟子后來反叛老師,是很自然的事情。

ZHIYOUZHEZHONGDUSHUFANGFA,ZHIYOUZHEZHONGFAJIANZIJISUOAIHAODEZUOJIADEDUSHUFANGFA,CAIYOUYICHUKEYAN。XIANGYIGENANZIHETADEQINGRENYIJIANQINGXINYIYANG,SHENMEDOUMEIYOUWENTILE。TADEGAODU,TADELIANKONG,TADETOUFADEYANSE,TADESHENGDIAO,HETADEYANXIAO,DOUSHIQIADAOHAOCHUDE。YIGEQINGNIANRENSHIZHEGEZUOJIA,SHIBUBIJINGTADEJIAOSHIDEZHIDAODE。ZHEGEZUOJIASHIQIAHETADEXINYIDE;TADEFENGGE,TADEQUWEI,TADEGUANNIAN,TADESIXIANGFANGFA,DOUSHIQIADAOHAOCHUDE。YUSHIDUZHEKAISHIBAZHEGEZUOJIASUOXIEDEDONGXIQUANDOUNALAIDULE,YINWEITAMENZHIJIANYOUYIZHONGXINLINGSHANGDELIANXI,SUOYITABASHENMEDONGXIDOUXISHOUJINQU,HAOBUFEILIDIXIAOHUALE。ZHEGEZUOJIAZIHUIYOUMOLIXIYINTA,ERTAYELEZIWEISUOXI;GUOLEXIANGDANGDESHIHOU,TAZIJIDESHENGYINXIANGMAO,YIPINYIXIAO,BIANJIANYUNEIGEZUOJIAXIANGSI。ZHEMEYILAI,TAZHENDEJINRUNZAITADEWENXUEQINGRENDEHUAIBAOZHONG,ERYOUZHEXIESHUJIZHONGHUODETADELINGHUNDESHILIANG。GUOLEJINIANZHIHOU,ZHEZHONGMOLIXIAOSHILE,TADUIZHEGEQINGRENYOUDIANGANDAOYANJUAN,KAISHIXUNZHAOYIXIEXINDEWENXUEQINGREN;DAOTAYIJINGYOUGUOSANSIGEQINGREN,ERBATAMENCHIDIAOZHIHOU,TAZIJIYECHENGWEIYIGEZUOJIALE。YOUXUDUODUZHEYONGBUCENGDUORUQINGWANG,ZHENGRUXUDUOQINGNIANNANNVZHIHUIMAINONGFENGQING,ERBUNENGZHONGQINGYUYIGEREN。SUIBIANNEIGEZUOJIADEZUOPIN,TAMENDOUKEYIDU,YIQIEZUOJIADEZUOPIN,TAMENDOUKEYIDU,TAMENSHIBUHUIYOUSHENMECHENGJIUDE。

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這個問題解決之后,讀書的時間和地點的問題也可以找到答案。讀書沒有合宜的時間和地點。一個人有讀書的心境時,隨便什么地方都可以讀書。如果他知道讀書的樂趣,他無論在學校內或學校外,都會讀書,無論世界有沒有學校,也都會讀書。他甚至在最優良的學校里也可以讀書。曾國藩在一封家書中,談到他的四弟擬入京讀較好的學校時說:“茍能發奮自立,則家塾可讀書,即曠野之地,熱鬧之場,亦可讀書,負薪牧豕,皆可讀書。茍不能發奮自立,則家塾不宜讀書,即清凈之鄉,神仙之境,皆不能讀書。”有些人在要讀書的時候,在書臺前裝腔作勢,埋怨說他們讀不下去,因為房間太冷,板凳太硬,或光線太強。也有些作家埋怨說他們寫不出東西來,因為蚊子太多,稿紙發光,或馬路上的聲響太嘈雜。宋代大學者歐陽修說他的好文章都在“三上”得之,即枕上,馬上,和廁上。有一個清代的著名學者顧千里據說在夏天有“裸體讀經”的習慣。在另一方面,一個人不好讀書,那么,一年四季都有不讀書的正當理由:

CHUNTIANBUSHIDUSHUTIAN;XIARIYANYANZUIHAOMIAN;

DENGDAOQIULAIDONGYOUZHI,BURUDENGDAIDAOLAINIAN。

那么,什么是讀書的真藝術呢?簡單的答案就是有那種心情的時候便拿起書來讀。一個人讀書必須出其自然,才能夠徹底享受讀書的樂趣。他可以拿一本《離騷》或奧瑪開儼(Omar Khayyam,波斯詩人)的作品,牽著他的愛人的手到河邊去讀。如果天上有可愛的白云,那么,讓他們讀白云而忘掉書本吧,或同時讀書本和白云吧。在休憩的時候,吸一筒煙或喝一杯好茶則更妙不過。或許在一個雪夜,坐在爐前,爐上的水壺鏗鏗作響,身邊放一盒淡巴菰,一個人拿了十數本哲學,經濟學,詩歌,傳記的書,堆在長椅上,然后閑逸地拿起幾本來翻一翻,找到一本愛讀的書時,便輕輕點起煙來吸著。金圣嘆認為雪夜閉戶讀禁書,是人生最大的樂趣。陳繼儒(眉公)描寫讀書的情調,最為美妙:“古人稱書畫為叢箋軟卷,故讀書開卷以閑適為尚。”在這種心境中,一個人對什么東西都能夠容忍了。此位作家又曰:“真學士不以魯魚亥豕為意,好旅客登山不以路惡難行為意,看雪景者不以橋不固為意,卜居鄉間者不以俗人為意,愛看花者不以酒劣為意。”

GUANYUDUSHUDELEQU,WOZAIZHONGGUOZUIWEIDADENVSHIRENLIQINGZHAO(YIAN,1081—1141NIAN)DEZICHUANLI,ZHAODAOYIDUANZUIJIADEMIAOXIE。TADEZHANGFUZAITAIXUEZUOXUESHENG,MEIYUELINGDAOSHENGHUOFEIDESHIHOU,TAMENFUQIZONGLIKEPAODAOXIANGGUOSIQUMAIBEIWENSHUIGUO,HUILAIFUQIXIANGDUIZHANWANJUJIAO,YIMIANBOSHUIGUO,YIMIANSHANGBEITIE,HUOZHEYIMIANPINJIAMING,YIMIANXIAOKANGEZHONGBUTONGDEBANBEN。TAZAI《JINSHILUHOUXU》ZHEPIANZICHUANXIAOJILIXIEDAO:

YUXINGOUQIANGJI,MEIFANBA,ZUOGUILAITANGPENGCHA,ZHIDUIJISHUSHI,YANMOUSHIZAIMOUSHUMOUJUANDIJIYEDIJIXING,YIZHONGFOUJIAOSHENGFU,WEIYINCHAXIANHOU。ZHONGJIJUBEIDAXIAO,ZHICHAQINGFUHUAIZHONG,FANBUDEYINERQI。

GANXINLAOSHIXIANGYI!GUSUIWAIYOUHUANKUNQIONGERZHIBUQU。……YUSHIJIANLUOLIE,ZHENXIZHENJIE,YIHUIXINMOU,MUWANGSHENSHOU,LEZAISHENG、SE、GOU、MAZHISHANG。……

ZHEPIANXIAOJISHITAWANNIANZHANGFUYISIDESHIHOUXIEDE。DANGSHITASHIGEGUDUDENVREN,YINJINBINGQINRUHUABEI,ZHIHAOBILUANNANFANG,DAOCHUPIAOBO。

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